The aim of this work was to study and describe fungal communities in different habitats in dry Mediterranean areas. The objective was to determine whether artificial reforestations can develop fungal communities as productive and diverse as those found in natural stands. The results could provide ecological and economical implications for forest management in marginal areas, in order to recover the original forest dominated by Quercus, establishing as intermediate stage new forest stands dominated by Pinus which might play an essential role in restoring some type of degraded or marginal areas. Reforestations in degraded soils in abandoned farmlands were dominated by Pinus pinaster, P. sylvestris and P. halepensis whereas natural forest stands were dominated by Quercus pyrenaica, Q. faginea and Populus nigra. During the autumn mushroom season of 2003, fruiting bodies found in the plots were identified, and production, mycological richness, diversity were measured. Individual sporocarps (7841), classified into 136 taxa, were collected and classified according to functional groups (mycorrhizal and saprotrophic), edibility, as well as commercial importance in the study area. In Pinus plots, sporocarps collected (4506), were classified into 84 different taxa, 32 mycorrhizal and 52 saprotrophic. Eleven of the total collected taxa were classified as edible fungi; and 8 of them are marketed in the studied area. In Quercus plots, 1277 sporocarps were collected, classified into 46 taxa, 17 mycorrhizal and 29 saprotrophic fungi. Eleven species were edible and four marketed in the region. In Populus plots, 2058 sporocarps were classified into 28 taxa. Seven were classified as mycorrhizal and 21 as saprotrophic. Twelve were classified as edible fungi; and four species are marketed in the area. Differences were found for richness variables, comparing mean values for host genus. Thus, values in Pinus plots were higher than in Quercus plots. In relation with fungal production, an average plot yield of 340.51kgha−1 fresh weight was found in Pinus plots. Fresh weight average plot production was 56.6kgha−1 and 226.2kgha−1 in Quercus and Populus plots respectively. Fresh weight production of edible taxa was found to be higher in Pinus and Populus plots than in Quercus stands. Artificial reforestations play an essential role in Mediterranean ecosystems avoiding soil losses and desertification of large areas in order to recover the original forest. They also may provide fungal production and diversity as high as those found in natural forest stands.