Species complementarity by morphological and physiological trait differences could cause distinct temporal and spatial use of resources. Accordingly, mixed stands may enhance production, biodiversity and/or provide a better adaptation to future climate conditions. We aim to identify species differences in intra-annual stem radial variation patterns, and to recognize species-specific responses to contrasting weather conditions at key intra-annual growth phases. Stem radial variation was recorded from high temporal resolution point dendrometers (2012–2014) installed on twelve dominant maritime pine and Pyrenean oak trees in two mixed stands in central Spain. Species differences in stem radial variation were analyzed by synchrony statistics, intra-annual pattern modelling, and evaluating the dependence of main intra-annual growth phases on climate conditions. Both species showed important differences on intra-annual radial increment pattern despite general stem radial variation synchrony. Radial increment onset was earlier for maritime pine during the spring and rainy autumns. Species-specific responses to weather indicate that stem radial variation increased with autumn temperature in maritime pine, but decreased in Pyrenean oak trees. However, summer vapor pressure deficit may reduce stem radial variation for maritime pine. Therefore, maritime pine would adapt more efficiently to warmer temperatures associated with climate change, although summer water stress may reduce this competitive bonus.