Despite being an abundant species as a whole, some subspecies and populations of the European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are particularly threatened due to climate change and alterations of fire regimes across the Mediterranean basin. This is the case of westernmost populations of P. nigra salzmannii in the Spanish Central Range (mostly in Sierra de Gredos mountains). Scattered and aged stands thrive in acidic soils, frequently surrounded by Maritime pine and oaks in mid and lower altitudes. The main challenges for the conservation of stands are wildfires –to which Maritime pine is much better adapted– and general lack of regeneration due to low seed viability, putatively deriving from a combination of ageing and inbreeding. In addition, planted stands of allochtonous subspecies can be hybridizing with some neighbouring natural stands.