The Mediterranean stone pine is currently on its way to domestication. Its genuine Mediterranean pine nuts are among the most expensive nuts in the world because they are mainly wildcollected from pine forests and woodlands. Despite the wide current distribution of stone pine over the whole Mediterranean biome, old-growth forests are scarce, often associated locally to dynamics on lose sands, coastal dunes or former estuary marshes. The species has been found to be genetically depauperate, putatively due to a population bottleneck in a local refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum confirmed in southern Iberia, and a possibly anthropic range expansion during Holocene. Only recently, cone harvesting and processing mechanisation have allowed for profitable pine nut production from orchard plantations. In Spain and Portugal, first elite clones have been registered for their use as grafted orchard crop.