Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) are important resources for rural economies. Highly regarded food products are collected from Mediterranean forests, such as nuts, berries, mushrooms and truffles, as well as aromatic and medicinal plants. Other NWFPs, such as resin or cork, can play a role in the circular bio-economy, providing sustainable alternatives to fossil-based raw materials. However, achieving fair levels of profitability for all actors throughout the value chain is still a challenge. Existing hourglass-shaped monopsony structures need to be resolved and market access to local producers must be strengthened. Furthermore, it is important to promote greater consumer awareness and willingness to pay for the sustainable, ‘wild-collected’ nature of these goods. The European thematic network INCREDIBLE (Innovation networks on Non-Wood Forest Products in the Mediterranean basin) brings together the main actors associated with NWFP with the aim of sharing knowledge, expertise and experience. Sharing information helps to identify the challenges and requirements of each NWFP value chain so that profitability and sustainability can be improved. The objective of Open Innovation is to bring together innovative ideas of actors from different organisations, thus making the best use of their respective areas of competence in order to create an effective innovation ecosystem. INCREDIBLE facilitates open innovation by establishing and operating Innovation Networks (iNets) for different NWFPs. The social, technological and silvicultural challenges and requirements for innovation in each iNet are identified and different approaches to addressing these are explored by the various actors involved in accordance with their areas of competence.