Bioeconomies emphasize the use of renewable natural resources to sustainably provide products. A bioeconomy can reduce the environmental impact of economic growth. Science-based management promotes sustainable harvests and production. Nontimber forest products (NTFP) are goods used for a variety of purposes. NTFP provide items such as food, medicine, decorations, nursery and landscaping products, fine art, and crafts. Billions of people worldwide depend on NTFP, either by direct consumption or as a source of income. These products are relatively invisible in national statistics. This under-reporting obscures the role they play in poverty reduction, food and health security, and social stability. Pine nuts, mushrooms, and woodland pastures are just a few examples of the nontimber forest products that are increasingly part of the bioeconomy—an economic model that embraces forests as a source of food while prioritizing biodiversity and sustainability. Mediterranean forest ecosystems and the goods they provide have been the object of the opening session in the IUFRO webinar series Unlocking the Bioeconomy for Nontimber Forest Products.