Prescribed fire has been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, other than the fact that fire may alter microsite conditions, little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the natural regeneration of Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmanii). In this study, we compared the effects of post dispersal seed predation, prescribed burning and vegetation treatment (brushing) on initial recruitment of Spanish black pine in both pure and mixed (with maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands during one year (2014) in the Cuenca Mountains (central-eastern Spain). Seedling recruitment in both pure and mixed stands was negatively affected by prescribed burning but was improved by the vegetation treatment. Post dispersal seed protection was an important factor for seed emergence and early survival success. Prescribed burning must be carefully planned in forest management aimed at regeneration. The influence of fire on natural regeneration should be taken into account for developing guidelines for the management of black pine forests, mainly in the Mediterranean Basin.